Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Second Year Students-Competency 6 Review

Fashion director: determines the fashion direction a business takes and communicates that information throughout the organization.
Grader: employee that enlarges patterns.
Production supervisor: oversees the workers in the factory.
Textile converters: primarily responsible for the production of fiber processing.
Electronic application: using the computer to apply for a job.
Fringe benefits: rewards given to employees in addition to salary.
Optimism: personal trait of seeing the good in every situation.
Professional level positions: include designers and chemists.
hourly wages: paid according to time on the job, plus any overtime.
ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act, forbids discrimination against someone in a wheelchair.
Job applications should: include all relevant information, have all questions answered, be filled out in blue or black ink.

When job hunting it is important to network with as many people as possible.

Interview procedures must relate to the job itself and can be based on the applicant's qualifications.

Resume: a document that gives the applicant's educational and work history in chronological order, included with a cover letter when interested in an advertised position

Employees are the biggest influence in determining the location of a company.

Second Year Students-Competency 5 Review

Qualities of good employees: greets customers with a smile and pleasant voice, cooperative with coworkers, are clean, neat, and well-groomed.

Examples of poor work habits: rolling eyes when in disagreement, leaning against the counter and slouching, getting angry when questioned by a customer, just a little late most days, not dependable.

To retain loyal clients it is important to provide quality products and services.
Allowing employees to participate in religious practices and observance is the business ethic called diversity.

If you see a coworker out with friends on a day they called in sick, when you return to work you should continue to work without confrontation.
If you give a customer the incorrect change you notify the supervisor on duty.
If you see another employee taking supplies without permission, tell a supervisor immediately. If you need some pens and pencils for your personal use, buy your own supplies.
If you are asked to move to another department, ask for a tour of the other department.
If an employee is spreading rumors, the supervisor should speak to him/her in private.

A male supervisor should wear at least a tie, dress shirt and dress pants. A jacket would be nice, too.

Memos: most appropriate way for a supervisor to inform employees of policy changes, a way to handle sensitive issues without embarrassing individual employees, should be free of bias.

New clothing that fades in the first wash should be returned to the store.

Sunday, January 9, 2011

Second Year Students- Competency 4 Review

Business Plan:
  • Serves as a manual to help during the design, start up, and operating phases of the business.
  • Evaluates financial feasibility and allows an entrepreneur to see the possibility of success
  • helps to obtain financing and guide the opening of the business
  • is a written proposal/document that describes a business to potential investors and serves as a road map for the business.
  • Includes proposed marketing/promotion plan. This includes details of the proposed product/service and the proposed pricing policy. Also includes market analysis information, and the plan for product distribution. Proposals for advertising are included in the marketing plan.
  • The final decision to start a small business is made after completion of the business plan.
  • The proposed financing plan is the part of the business plan that includes information about repayment of borrowed funds, and a projected income/cash flow statement is included as well.
A balance sheet is created at the end of each day. It shows how much of the assets belong to the owner. Tells the entrepreneur what his/her business is worth.

The cash flow statement will show whether cash is available to pay the bills. It is one of the most important statements created at the end of each day. Expenses, net income or loss, and expenses are used to construct the cash flow statement.

When making sales projections, it is important to know the target customer-the consumers that will buy a specific product or service.

To make sales predictions based on a NEW product or service, there are many pricing variables.

Sales projections or forecasting may be done after conducting a market analysis.

In order to make a profit, MOST businesses that purchase or manufacture goods for resale use markup.
Cost + markup = price is the formula for the basic markup concept.
An item that costs $20 with a 50% markup will sell for $30.
If an item is marked up 100% above cost, the price will be double.
With 100% markup and 1 cent removed to give the impression of bargain prices, the retail price of an item that costs $20 wholesale is $39.99.
In pricing, a break even analysis can help a business by showing how many items must be sold to break even.
Fixed and variable expenses determine the price required to make a profit.
Fixed expenses do not change with the number of items produced. Rent is a fixed expense.
If a price markdown is taken, more items must be sold to reach the break even point.
To calculate the break even point, divide fixed costs by (variable costs subtracted from the selling price). If the selling price is $6, variable costs are $2, and fixed costs are $200, fifty items would have to be sold to break even. 200 divided by 4 is 50.

Mail-order catalogs/online retailing are most effective as a profit maker. Very little expenses compared to a retail location.

Product development is moving from idea to design to model. It is also the highest risk area of start-up for a small business. A prototype is a working model of a product.
Even though it is very expensive initially, automation can cut production time, reduce errors, and simplify procedures.

To select a business site, it is important to refer to the area's demographics: basic objective descriptive classifications of consumers, such as their age, sex, income, education, size of household, ownership of home, etc. Opinions and attitudes are NOT demographics.
An area with a growing economic base is important when selecting a site for a new business.
Number and size of competing businesses are a good criteria for selecting a retail business site.
Lower taxes: an incentive offered by a community for new enterprises
Access to supplies is a physical layout planning consideration for a manufacturing business.
Location of competition is critical to consider when selecting a location for a new business.

To help meet future financial goals and objectives, a business should prepare a budget.

Product standards are developed to benefit the consumer. (Think Flammable Fabrics Act)
A business uses quality control to verify and maintain the desired standards in a product or service.
Quality control is a responsibility of the entire production team.
An Inspector checks goods to ensure quality control.

Distribution is the process of getting merchandise to the proper locations.
Many jobs are available in the area of product distribution; most are paid by hourly wages.
How and where products are offered to customers is the part of distribution known as place.
Indirect distribution is the channel that delivers a product through wholesalers.
Direct distribution is the channel that moves a product from producer to customer with no one in between.
A primary use of floor space in a retail business facility is selling.
Logistics are the details of the product's movement from the manufacturer to the consumer.

Outsourcing: the process of hiring specialists to do specific work, rather than use company employees.
Outsourcing provides opportunities for an entrepreneur to supply services to other companies.

Marketing objectives: Goals
Place is the part of the marketing mix that involves delivery of goods and services to the customer.
Package: Physical container or wrapper that holds the product
Label: part of the product's package used to present information.

Capitalism: free enterprise system
Entrepreneur: Self-employed
Target Market: specific group
Investment capital: Money
Policy: General statements of intent
Trade associations: provide information about specific industries.
Feasibility analysis: process used to test a business idea.
"The customer is always right": customer complaint motto used by most businesses.
Technical skill: involves the use of tools, equipment, procedure, and techniques
If a person wants to start a small business, math skills will help calculate profits and establish record keeping.
Job description: a specific statement that describes the responsibilities of an individual employee and who the employee reports to; describes the objectives of the job and its duties and responsibilities.
Management-by-objectives: a type of scheduling that involves employees setting their own objectives and gauging their own progress.
An effective time management technique is to delegate work to others.

Perpetual inventory is used for accurate and instantaneous accounting of product by warehouses or storage facilities.
Manufacturers use the just-in-time inventory system for effective and minimal inventory.
Visual inventory could be used by a small produce store for a quick inspection.

Portfolios are used to evaluate student work. It should be graded by the student and teacher. A DISADVANTAGE of using a portfolio is more time and work are involved in preparing one. Self-evaluation of the portfolio provides excellent feedback to the student.
Portfolios represent a cooperative effort between students, teacher, and parents.

When a class is beginning to discuss the kind of project to make and sell, a primary consideration would be resources available.
Make the decision if a business is possible or within reason after exploring whether a product or business service is feasible. Same thing for ideas for a class project.

If the class project is a 6"x60" scarf, the fabric is 60" wide @ $6/yd. It would be possible to get 6 scarves per yard (36" divided by 6 = 6). That is a cost of $1 per scarf.
If the class plans to sell them at the ballgame, if they aren't finished by the pep rally, they need to stay in class and finish.
If an order form is written incorrectly, call the customer and explain the mistakes before completing the order.
Cold weather may increase sales.
If a student is not available to market scarves at games, other students will volunteer to take their place for extra credit.
Home ballgames would be the BEST market for selling the scarves.

First Year Students-Competency 12 Review

Proportion is described as the relationship of the spaces within apparel to one another and to the total look of the item.

Hues are included in the color element of design.

A horizontal line conveys the illusion of a shorter, wider look in apparel design.

Progression is a series of color from very light to very dark.

A shade is created by darkening a color with black.

Secondary colors are a good example of triad color harmony.

The primary colors are red, blue, and yellow.

The secondary colors are green, orange, and violet.

When choosing apparel that is in proportion or scale, a large-framed person should wear big collars.

A shirt with an off-center closing and one pocket to the side is an example of asymmetrical balance.

Texture describes the look and feel of a fabric.

Emphasis is the focal point of a garment or outfit.

Diagonal lines add the most excitement and movement to a garment.

Large patterns in a fabric patten tend to make the wearer look larger.

Apparel with a side front wrap illustrates asymmetrical balance.

Brightness describes the intensity of a color.

One primary color plus one secondary color make a tertiary color.

Ruffles are an accent that can add softness to a garment.

First Year Students-Competency 9 Review

Flannel is a soft, napped fabric made from cotton, wool, or rayon and is typically used for shirts, dresses, nightwear and sheets.

Wool is the natural fiber frequently damaged by moths. It provides warmth, and comes from animals.

Spandex stretches and is replacing rubber in MOST clothing uses.

Blends are different fibers that have been combined into one yarn.

Knits stretch. Woven fabrics usually don't. The exception would be a woven blend that includes spandex.

Natural fibers are cotton, flax, linen, wool, silk.

Manmade fibers include: nylon, rayon, spandex, polyester, acrylic.

Silk is a natural filament fiber. It comes from the cocoon of the silkworm, which makes it an animal fiber.

Rayon was the FIRST manmade fiber.

Corduroy, terrycloth, and velvet are woven fabrics.

Spandex is a knitted fabric.

Denim, gabardine and flannel are twill weave fabrics.

Knitted fabrics can be described as yarns looped together.

Plain weave is the simplest of all weaves.

Satin is shiny and smooth because its weave has four yarn floats on top of the fabric.

Felt is a nonwoven fabric.

First Year Students-Competency 8 Review

Use pre-wash soil and stain remover just before washing to help remove stains.

Bleach removes stains, whitens, brightens, and destroys bacteria. Chlorine bleach is used on white fabrics, Non-chlorine bleach is used on colors.

Pre-wash stain removers are used to treat protein-type stains prior to the wash cycle.

Fabric softener may be added to the final rinse of the washing cycle to reduce static electricity. Dryer sheets/bars are used for the same purpose in the dryer.

Disinfectants are used in the laundry to control or eliminate bacteria.

Non-chlorine bleach is used to brighten fabrics, and is safe to use on colored clothing.

Blood can be removed from fabric by soaking in cold water and using pre-wash stain remover. Peroxide and water also work very well, but they were not included in the questions.

Starch is used to stiffen fabrics. Sizing is used as an ironing aid, but does not stiffen the fabric.

The best way to remove gum from clothing is to harden the gum with ice and scrape it off.

First Year Students-Competency 7 Review

Before laundering clothing, consider fabric type, washing method, and water temperature.

Daily clothing care includes checking for stains and needed repairs, as well as folding or hanging clothes after wearing.

Before laundering, clothes should be sorted by color, washing method, and water temperature.

It is important to check pockets and fasten closures before laundering clothes. Lipstick and ink pens don't wash well....

One guideline for drying clothes is to select drying temperature to suit the fabric.

Out of season clothing should be stored clean, in a dry storage area. Cool, moist temperatures are not good for clothes, it is not a good idea to store knits hanging, and you never store fur or leather in plastic!!

Wednesday, January 5, 2011

Second Year Students-Competency 3 Review

When constructing a pair of slacks, the crotch length should be comfortable when sitting or bending.

A Universal sewing machine needle is sharp enough to pierce tightly woven fabrics yet rounded enough to push aside the yarns of a knitted fabric without leaving holes.

When constructing a set-in sleeve, the armhole measurement is slightly smaller than the sleeve. Easing is the sewing technique used to put in a smooth seam.

Hook and loop tape is an appropriate closure for a person with limited hand use.

If a flap will not lay flat when buttoned, correct the problem by realigning the button

When constructing a garment, select interfacing that is similar in weight to the fabric.

In manufactured garments, the usual seam allowance is a minimum of 1/2".

When switching from a medium weight cotton blend fabric to a faux leather while sewing, the needle type should be changed.

On a conventional sewing machine, the pressure regulator adjusts the amount of pressure applied to the presser foot.

A blind stitch presser foot is appropriate for constructing an invisible machine-worked hem, especially on top finished edges of a canvas bag.

To allow leather to feed smoothly while sewing on a conventional sewing machine, change the presser foot to a Teflon or walking foot.

To keep seams from feeding unevenly when joining two heavy weight fabrics, increase stitch length.

Decrease the pressure regulator on the serger when serging a lightweight cotton fabric.

Use general purpose thread for the overlock stitches when constructing a cotton fabric tissue holder using the serger.

A point presser is the pressing tool with a narrow wooden surface with a triangle shape end that is used to press sharp edges.

A zigzag seam finish using a medium width and stitch is a fast and easy seam finish for upholstery fabric.

The blind stitch sewn by hand can be used to incorporate an invisible hem and control excessive fullness in the hem, especially when constructing a valance.

When the hem of a linen skirt is turned up 1/4", then turned again 1 1/2", the hand stitch used to hem is the blind stitch.

Product styling and material should be considered FIRST when choosing a closure based on the appearance within a design product.

Heavy-duty hooks and bars are the most appropriate closure for waistbands.

The most appropriate hem finish for heavyweight fabric that ravels easily is the bound hem finish.

Clip an underarm seam to ensure that the seam curves correctly.

When pinning down a pattern, use the correct pattern layout to make sure that the pattern pieces are cut on-grain.

Unevenly spaced buttonholes are NOT a sign of quality apparel construction. Buttonholes that are firmly stitched with reinforced corners that lie smooth and flat are much better quality.

Interfacing helps create a smooth crisp collar during garment construction.

Serging is the LEAST suitable method for finishing the bottom of a sleeve. Better options are casings, cuffs, and hems.

A serged seam finish is appropriate for a dress made from lightweight knit fabric.

To reduce bulk in an enclosed seam and ensure a quality product, grading the seams is the best technique.

The best way to reduce bulk around the neckline in a coat made from heavy fabric is to grade the seam.

In a quality made garment, the facings should have finished edges, lie flat against the body, and turn to the inside of the garment. The facings should NOT be visible from the outside.

Snaps are appropriate fasteners for children's sleepwear.

Signs of a well fitted garment are: a collar that lies close to the neck, pleats that hang vertically, zippers that open smoothly. Uneven hems are NOT a sign of good fit.

A buttoned cuff should fit comfortably around the wrist.

When analyzing garment fit, be sure that chest and back fit smoothly. Armholes that restrict body movement, a crotch area that wrinkles and binds, or a binding waistband are NOT good fit.

POOR garment fit is indicated by hemlines that are not parallel to the floor. GOOD garment fit is indicated by buttons that do not pull or strain, pants legs that fall straight from the hipline without wrinkles, and a waistline that does not bind. Sleeves should cover the wrist bone with the arm bent. Collars should fit close to the neck.

Well-made hems have a flat and smooth hem edge, stitching that does not show on the outside, and the garment hangs evenly around the body. Poorly made hems have the edges slightly longer in the back or front.

Quality workmanship in garment construction includes: even stitching, smooth seams, straight hems. Plaids should match, collars should have smooth curves and seams should be straight and even. Darts should NOT have a dimple at the point. Buttons should be the right size for the buttonhole, fabrics (especially loosely woven ones) should have seam finishes, thread color should match the fabric. Facings should lie flat against the body, trims should be sewn securely, zippers should open and close easily.

The serger can make a flatlock decorative seam and trim edges while sewing.

No serger adjustment is needed to serge a satin pillow sham.

The serger is an industry machine that will trim the seam as it sews.

For a cushion manufacturer to cut 100 stacked layers of fabric by hand, an electric stright-knife cutting machine would be used.

The rotary cutter works best when cutting rectangular and straight markers.

Use embroidery scissors to clip threads from work in a machine-embroidery hoop.

Seams on corduroy should be pressed open using a steam iron, needle board, and pressing cloth.

A steam iron is used to press conventional seams.

Welt seams are a decorative seam suitable for a tailored bag of heavy weight corduroy.

The French seam is appropriate for constructing an heirloom bag of cotton batiste.

Use a lapped seam to sew together pieces of leather for a bag.

A zigzag or serged seam finish is good for heavy fabrics that ravel.

Serged seam finishes are good for canvas window treatments.

A clean seam finish is made by turning and stitching the seam allowance 1/4" from the edge to prevent raveling.

A French seam can be described as a seam within a seam. It is very appropriate for an unlined satin jacket.

The piped seam is constructed by incorporating cording within the seam. It is often used when constructing decorative pillows.

Quality workmanship in collar construction includes: both sides of the collar being identical, curves are smooth, points are sharp and even, the collar circles the neck smoothly without ripples, the collar covers the neck seam in the back. The undercollar should NOT show along the edge, and the interfacing should NOT be heavier than the fabric.

Raw edges of apparel should be covered with appropriate hems.

Before purchasing an apparel item made with napped fabric, the consumer should make sure the nap runs in the same direction.

A shirt tail hem is good to use on medium or heavyweight fabrics that ravel a great deal.

Use a slip stitch for hems with a turned and stitched finish or a bias binding finish.

Hook and loop tape used as a closure on a bag of hard-to-match print fabric is not immediately obvious.

Snaps are an appropriate closure for overlapping edges that receive a minimum of strain.

Snaps are a good closure to use on a terry-cloth cover-up.

When applying hook and loop closure to a bag, apply the loop side to the overlapping part. It is less likely to snag when applied this way.

To sew with metallic thread, the machine needs a special needle.

Garments should be made with wearing ease to fit properly.

Collars should circle the neck without rippling.

A quality indicator for a set-in sleeve is fullness ease without puckering.

Unfinished seams and hems are signs of poor workmanship.

When evaluating a garment's fit, bend and touch toes, raise the arms over the head and sit down to check for pulling.

The self-enclosed seam usually found on jeans is the flat felled seam.

First Year Students-Competency 5 Review

To construct a plain seam, pin the right sides of the fabric together, then sew one row of standard stitches 5/8" from the fabric edge.

A button shank is made by stitching through the button over a toothpick or heavy pin, then wind thread tightly around the stitches under the button.

The correct way to press a fabric is to raise and lower the iron onto the fabric.

After the fabric pattern pieces are cut and right sides are placed together, sew a plain standard seam by sewing 5/8" from the cut edge, backstitching on each end.

To ease, run two lines of basting stitches 1/4" and 1/2" from the cutting line, then pull the bobbin thread of each line to allow fabric to be manipulated into a smaller area.

A sew-through button is attached by securing a thread at the button marking, placing a toothpick on top of the button, bringing the needle up through one hole and down through the other, and finally, making several stitches through the button and fabric.

The backstitch on a seam begins at the beginning of the stitching line and is repeated at the end.

Sew-through buttons have a shank made with thread, shank buttons have a metal or plastic loop on the back.

If the directions say: "Pin the interfacing to wrong side of the fabric, trim corners diagonally, stitch the interfacing to the fabric and trim interfacing close to stitching", you would be using non-fusible interfacing.

A plain seam is constructed by placing the right sides together, sewing a 5/8" seam, and pressing open.

A tailor's/pressing ham is a firm rounded cushion used to press curved seams and darts.

A seam is notched by cutting wedges of fabric from the seam allowance every 1/4" to 1/2".

If the directions say: "trim away interfacing seam allowance and press interfacing on the wrong side of the fabric piece" you would be using fusible interfacing.

The correct procedure to machine hem a pant leg is to fold back the garment edge 1/4" below the hem edge and machine blind stitch.

The turned and stitched seam finish is constructed by sewing a standard seam, pressing it open, then turning each seam allowance back 1/4" and stitching close to the fold.

A reinforced seam can prevent the crotch seam of shorts from continually breaking when a person sits down.

The best way to decide on an iron setting when there is no information on a care label is to test a setting on a seam allowance.

Pressing is best described as lifting the iron and setting it down again on the fabric.

To reduce bulk in a corner, trim seam allowances and cut close to the corner diagonally.

Notching will make a collar with an outward curve with too much fabric lie flat.

Elastic for a waistline casing should be cut 1" more than the waist measurement.

If one fabric edge is slightly longer than the one it will be attached to, easing will make them the same size.

A button that is used for decoration only can be applied with no shank at all.

Snaps are made of two sections-a ball half and a socket half. Sew on the ball half first, using a double thread.

Interfacing is used to give body and shape to a garment.

The slipstitch is a hem stitch that slips the hand needle inside the folded edge of the hem and then picks up one or two threads of the fabric directly below?

Fusible web is a great quick fix for a pants hem that has been pulled out by the heel of a shoe.

The slipstitch used to hem is used to attach one folded edge to another piece of fabric.

To select elastic for a casing, use one that is 1/8" to 1/4" narrower than the casing width.

Whenever pattern instructions use only the word "stitch", a 5/8" seam allowance is implied.

A zigzag seam finish is fast and easy for fabrics that ravel.

A serged seam is used to produce the seam and seam finish at the same time.

The fabric will ravel if a person uses regular seams for apparel.

A seam finish can be done with either the sewing machine or the serger

Plain seams should be backstitched at the beginning and end of the seams.

To sew a plain seam, the fabric edge is placed against the 5/8" fraction on the needle/throat plate.

Follow the guide sheet directions to know the seam size, especially for teddy bears.

To sew a plain seam, fabric should ALWAYS be right sides together.

A machine zigzag finish is used on medium and heavy weight material.

A plain seam is constructed by stitching a 5/8" seam and then pressing it open.

A serged seam finish is best for stretch fabrics, especially a jogging suit.

A press cloth is used to prevent a shine from forming on fabric when pressing.

A pressing/tailor's ham should be used to press the curved areas of a garment.

Ironing is used to remove wrinkles in apparel after laundering.

Pressing is the technique used in apparel construction to open seams after stitching.

Temperature is the most important factor in the effective use of an iron.

A press cloth protects fabrics from developing a shine or glossy finish when pressing.

It is best NOT to press over pins because they may leave an impression on the fabric and may scratch the iron.

Fiber content determines the iron temperature and use of moisture.

Ironing uses a back and forth motion of the iron and can cause fabric to stretch.

A press cloth helps prevent shine, matting, and iron impressions.

To clip a seam allowance, make tiny snips every 1/4" to 1/2".

To make seam allowances on the inward curve of a neckline lie flat, grade then clip the seam allowance.

One way to reduce bulk from and inside curve is to trim and clip the seam allowance.

After being graded, the smallest seam allowance should be about 1/8". It should also be closest to the inside of the garment.

After a seam allowance is graded, the widest part should be closest to the outside of the garment.

Easing and gathering are both used to control fullness in a garment.

The fullness of a very flared hem edge is controlled by easing.

A casing is a closed tunnel of fabric that holds a piece of elastic or a drawstring inside.

An applied casing is a separate strip of fabric that is sewn to the waist area to hold elastic or a drawstring.

The best tools to insert elastic through a casing are a safety pin or a bodkin.

A self-casing encloses a drawstring and is formed by turning back the edge of the garment piece.

The result of easing two fabrics together should be a smooth flat seam.

Zippers work better on the back of a dress than buttons. safety pins, or snaps.

Machine stitching is the BEST method for attaching Velcro to a garment.

Use a double strand of matching regular thread to attach a sew-through button.

A shank button has a metal or plastic loop already attached to the back.

Velcro is often found on jackets, sportswear, children's clothes, and craft items.

Use a double thread to attach buttons, snaps, and hooks and eyes.

When attaching non-fusible (sew in) interfacing, trim away 1/2" of the interfacing edge prior to stitching.

Interfacing gives shape to collars. cuffs, and waistbands.

Turned and stitched hems are appropriate for shirts.

Skirt hems should hang parallel to the floor.

Machine stitching hems are a quick technique for hemming pants.

Slipstitches used for hems should be almost invisible.

Topstitching can be used to attach a hem and decorate at the same time.

Hand hemming stitches should be spaced evenly for a neat look and should be loose enough that fabric doesn't pucker.

Backstitching prevents seam ends from pulling apart.

A regular seam should be reinforced by using very short stitches, 15 to 20 per inch. A second row of stitches within the seam allowance is also usually used.

Well-made seams should be pressed after stitching.

Plain seams are stitched with the right sides together.

Dry cleaning is NOT a seam finish and therefore cannot prevent raveling.

A standard seam is 5/8" wide.

Sergers produce a serged seam finish.

After sewing a standard seam, the next step is to press the seam open.

To press a seam, first press it flat, then press it open.

Properly pressed apparel should have pressed seams.

To prevent shine on fabric, use a press cloth.

Items that are essential for pressing are an iron, ironing board, and press cloth.

An iron, a press cloth and a tailor's/pressing ham are basic pressing equipment. Ball point pins are NOT.

Use a tailor's/pressing ham to press curved seams and darts

A press cloth is used to prevent shine on the right side of the fabric.

Curved seams should be pressed over a tailor's/pressing ham.

All seams should be pressed after being stitched.

Ironing uses a back and forth motion.

To prevent shine on the right side of the fabric, press on the wrong side whenever possible.

Bulk is reduced in a seam by grading the seam allowance.

Casings are often used to control fullness at the waist.

Casings do NOT require interfacing. Collars, facings, and waistbands DO require interfacing.

Casings are used with drawstrings, elastic, and ribbon. Buttons are not used with casings.

Use a double thread to attach buttons to a garment.

Velcro is attached to apparel items by machine or hand stitching. Using a glue gun doesn't work.

Velcro can be described as two nylon strips that intermesh. It is also called hook and loop tape.

Use a single thread to hem by hand.

Staystitching has absolutely nothing to do with hemming. Staystitching is used on fabric to prevent stretching before seaming.

Hems can be constructed by fusing, hand stitches, or machine stitches.

Velcro does not require a special tool to apply. It is two nylon strips, must be attached to the fabric, and cannot be ironed.

To sew on snaps, stitch the ball half in place first. That makes it easier to mark where the socket half goes.

Interfacing adds stability and stiffness.

Fusible interfacing is attached with heat on the WRONG side of the fabric.

Non-fusible interfacing is basted in the seam allowance to the wrong side of the fabric.

Hems should be straight and even.

Most commercially made pants are hemmed with the machine blind stitch.

First Year Students-Competency 4 Review

The number of pattern pieces is information that will help you select a simple pattern that is easy to sew.

The bracket (a line with a bending arrow on both ends) on the center front or center back of a pattern piece means to place this line on a fold.

If you are pinning down a pattern, check the pattern piece itself to see how many to cut.
When pinning pattern pieces to the fabric, you should place all the pattern pieces on the fabric before pinning any of them in place.
After all pattern pieces are placed on the fabric, pin the grain line FIRST,

The cutting layout is the diagram on the guide sheet that shows how to arrange the different pattern pieces on various widths of fabric.

To assure that the fabric will not shrink after the item is washed, preshrink the fabric before construction.

To make a multi-sized pattern easier to use, mark the desired cutting line with a felt-tip pen.

If the waist measurement is 1" larger than the pattern size, 1/2" must be added to each of the side seams. That means you would cut it 1/4" larger on BOTH sides of the front and the back.

If the waist measurement is 1" too small for the pattern, you would need to remove 1/4" from each of the four front and back side seams.

When using a fabric marking pen to transfer pattern symbols to the fabric, if you press over the marks they may become difficult to remove.

The number of fabric pieces to be cut from each pattern piece is printed on each pattern piece.

A shaded pattern piece shown on a cutting layout means that the piece should be turned printed side down.

Notches, dots, and squares are pattern symbols used to assist with matching pattern pieces before seaming.

Information printed on each pattern piece includes: name of pattern piece, number of pattern pieces to be cut, pattern number.

The pattern layout chart is found on the guide sheet which is included in the pattern envelope.

Information found on the pattern guide sheet includes: cutting, marking and sewing.

Information about fabric selection is found on the back of the pattern envelope.

If you need to add 2" to the length of a pattern, use the adjustment lines to make this alteration.

If you lengthen the front pattern piece, you also must make this change on the back.

When shortening a sleeve pattern use the adjustment line to make the change.

When pinning a pattern to fabric, place the pins perpendicular to the cutting line.

When pinning a pattern piece to fabric, place the pins about 6" apart.

After the pattern is pinned to the fabric, cut double notches together with one long edge.

Symbols are traced with the tracing wheel and paper on the WRONG side of the fabric.

Dressmaker/bent handled shears are used to cut out fabric for an apparel item.

Dotted lines on a pattern piece indicate the stitching line.

A lengthwise fold is parallel to the selvages.

Length and width adjustments should be made before laying out the pattern.

Pattern pieces should be handled carefully so they do not tear.

Care instructions for fabric are found on the bolt for the fabric.

To preshrink fabric, treat it as you would the finished apparel item.

Notches are cut out and away from the seam allowance.

Fabric should be cut with long, smooth strokes.

First Year Students-Competency 3 Review

To prevent injuries while sewing the machine operator should sit up straight and keep fingers away from the presser foot.

If the needle and bobbin threads have the proper amount of tension, the stitches will be identical on both fabric front and back.

If the pattern selector dial is set for a zigzag stitch and the machine continues to sew a straight stitch, you need to adjust the stitch width.

Broken threads on the serger usually occur when looper threads are crossed.

A four-thread serger cuts seam allowances off and overcasts the seam edge.

To chain off with the serger, serge off the fabric, bring the chain and fabric around so the chain crosses in front of the knife.

On the sewing machine, the stitch length regulator determines the length of the stitch.

The feed is the part of the sewing machine that moves the fabric under the presser foot.

The presser foot holds the fabric in place during stitching.

The stitch width regulator is the part of the sewing machine that regulates the width of zigzag stitches.

The sewing machine needle is held in place by the needle clamp.

To operate the sewing machine, press down on the foot/knee control.

The owner's manual is the BEST source of information about the use and care of the sewing machine.

The bobbin winder is the part of the sewing machine that allows the operator to fill the bobbin with thread.

The needle clamp screw of a sewing machine should be tight to prevent the needle from falling out.

The needle plate/throat plate has the guides for seam allowances.

The bobbin is the part of the sewing machine that forms the lower part of the stitch.

The tension control is the part of the sewing machine that controls the tightness of the upper thread.

On the serger, the needles work with the loopers to form stitches.

Knives are found on the serger but not on the sewing machine.

The hand wheel raises and lowers the needle on both the serger and the sewing machine.

The serger function that cannot be done with a sewing machine is to trim, stitch, and overcast in one step.

Loopers on the serger compare to the bobbin on a sewing machine.

Incorrect threading of the machine can cause the thread to break while sewing.

When first learning to sew, the machine operator should use a slow speed.

The FIRST step to clean the sewing machine is to turn it off and unplug it.

The FIRST thing to do when the sewing machine will not stitch is to check the threading.

The type of fabric determines what type of needle to use in a sewing machine.

To check the threading of the sewing machine before beginning to sew, run a test sample on a fabric scrap.

The best method to secure the end of a serged seam is to use seam sealant.

The operation that completes the end of a serged seam is to chain off.

The serger problem indicated by jagged fabric edges is dull knives.

If a person sews over pins while serging, it may damage the inner workings of the machine.

When serged stitches are not smooth and even, check to be sure the presser foot is lowered.

The serger part that is always threaded LAST is the needles.

Serged stitches can easily be removed with a seam ripper.

One step in completing a serged seam is to press the seam to one side.

First Year Students-Competency 2 Review

Marking equipment includes: tracing wheel, dressmaker's carbon paper, tailor's chalk, fabric pens

Cutting equipment includes: dressmaker's shears, scissors, rotary cutter and mat, thread clipper

Seam rippers are used to remove stitches from fabric sewn together incorrectly.

Rotary cutters are cutting tools that look like a pizza cutter and have a round, retractable blade.

Ballpoint pins have rounded points and are used on knitted fabrics. The round points slip in between the yarns in the knit.

Pinking shears have zigzag blade edges and can be used to keep seam allowances from raveling.

When handing scissors to a classmate, give them the handle NOT the blades.

A sewing or seam gauge is used to measure the width of a hem and to measure and mark small increments such as 5/8".

Dressmaker shears are used to cut only fabric.

Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Second Year Students-Competency 2 Review

United States basic style of dress adapted from Europe
European fashion industry recognized worldwide in the 1900's
Industrial Revolution influenced the fashion industry with mass production

Fashion-worn by many mainstream people during the same time period, popular with large segment of the population
Trend- a fashion cycle that happens slowly
Classic-always in fashion. Navy, black and gray
Fad-worn by a few people for a short time
The way a person dresses illustrates their style

Smooth-texture suitable for most body types, makes a person look smaller
Dull-texture that absorbs light, makes wearer look smaller
Cool colors-blues, greens, violets. Considered to be restful, relaxing, and soothing.
Warm colors-reds, oranges, yellows. Considered bright, cheerful, suggests activity
Complementary colors-across from each other on the color wheel, makes colors seem brighter
Dark, monochromatic color scheme-makes wearer look taller, thinner
Navy-used for classics and sportswear
Black-neutral-absorbs light and appears warmer

Outer appearance (shape) of a garment is its silhouette
Rhythm-created by repetition, radiation, and progression of color
Famous French Designers: Emmanuel Ungaro, Yves Saint Laurent, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Charles Frederick Worth
Famous British Designers: Mary Quant, Vivienne Westwood

Wearing a long tubular skirt to appear taller-use of shape
Wearing a short jacket with a long skirt-use of proportion
Wrap skirt that opens to the side-use of asymmetrical balance
Piping on a round pillow-use of curved line
Earrings worn to match eye color-use of emphasis
Wearing a long top over a short skirt-use of proportion

Rayon-fiber originally sold as "artificial silk"
Logistics in the apparel industry is related to product distribution

Second Year Students-Competency 1 Review

Natural fibers: Cotton, Linen (Flax), Wool, Silk, Ramie
Cotton-used in a variety of fabrics for clothing and furnishings due to low cost and wide availability.
Silk-very old fiber, damaged by sunlight and perspiration. filament fiber.
Ramie-plant fiber-stiff and brittle, best combined with other fibers
Cellulosic fibers: acetate, rayon, triacetate
Rayon-first manmade fiber
Polyester-manufactured fiber, excellent wrinkle resistance
Spandex-used in outer wear and exercise wear, easy to care for, excellent elasticity. replaced rubber in many clothing applications.
Aramid-excellent strength and heat resistance, used in protective wear
Olefin-manufactured fiber, excellent abrasion resistance, used in home and industrial furnishings
Tencel-newest manufactured fiber

Plain weave fabrics: broadcloth, poplin, gingham
Twill weave-firmer, heavier weave. Twill weave fabrics: denim, flannel, gabardine
Satin weave creates a lustrous appearance
Weft knits: single-knit jerseys, ribbed knits, jersey knits

Fiber dyeing allows fabric to be dyed with uniformity and good color fastness
Yarn dye method best for plaids
Screen printing method best for printing large designs
Bleaching used to remove impurities and ensure a "true" dye
Piece dyeing allows fabric to be dyed after it has been woven or knitted

First Year Students Competency 1 Review

To measure the bust or chest correctly, place the measuring tape under the arms and around the fullest part of the bust or chest.

To obtain accurate body measurements, work with a partner.

Accurate body measurements should be taken over standard undergarments.

To use the tape measure for basic body measurements, be sure this measuring tool is held snug but not tight.

The correct procedure for measuring the backwaist length is to measure from the prominent bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.

The backwaist body measurement is important to determine the fit for a long-waisted figure type.

To take the hip measurement for patterns, the tape measure should be placed around the fullest part of the hip.

The inseam measurement for slacks is determined by measuring from the crotch along the inside of the leg to the desired length.

The outseam (pants side length) measurement is determined by measuring from the waist down the outside of the leg to the desired length.

When body measurements fall between two sizes, and the pattern design is loosely fitted choose the smaller pattern size.

The correct pattern size for a dress depends on the closest bust measurement.

In commercial patterns, figure type is based on height and proportion.

To assist the consumer in selecting a pattern, pattern companies provide a detailed drawing or photograph of the completed garment. This is found in the pattern catalog AND on the front of the pattern envelope.

The yardage chart on the back of the pattern envelope shows the amount of fabric necessary to complete a clothing construction project.

If a zipper is needed for a pillow project, the size needed is found in the Notions area on the back of the pattern envelope.

Figure types, which are used by pattern companies, are determined by height and proportion.

Unisex patterns are designed for either males or females.

Standard body measurements used to select pattern sizes are conveniently found on the pattern envelope back.

The type of fabric chosen for a successful sewing project depends on the person's sewing experience.

The pattern identification number can be found on the pattern envelope front and back, the guide sheet, and each pattern piece.

If lining or interfacing is required for a garment, this information is found on the pattern envelope back.

The written description on the back of the pattern envelope has details about the apparel item.

Medium weight cotton is appropriate fabric for a beginning sewing project.

A small, overall print is the most trouble-free fabric design for an inexperienced sewer to use.

Men's dress shirts are sized according to neck size and arm length.

The pattern and guide sheet are included in the pattern envelope.

The tape measure is used to check the grainline when laying out a pattern.

First Year Students Competencies 13 & 14 Review

A cover letter and resume should be sent to prospective employers before an interview.

The FIRST step to take when looking for a job is to find out where the jobs are.

If you decide to change jobs, you should work a two week notice.

A job application should be filled in completely using blue or black ink.

A previous employer is a suitable reference for a job application.

You should ask permission from someone before listing them as a reference.

A resume should relate to one's job objective. It should also include work experience and education history.

An entrepreneur must be able to take risks and deal with competition.

If you have a job as a stock clerk, acceptable behavior on the job is to concentrate on stocking.

If you are in a meeting, it is acceptable to make a list of work-related jobs that need completion during parts of the meeting that do not apply to you.

If you work in a job with flexible hours and a coworker gets upset/makes negative remarks, you should continue to do your work as usual.

If two employees are being considered for a promotion, they should both cooperate and be polite at work until the selection is announced.

If you oversleep and do poorly on a test, at your after-school job you should still perform your job to the best of your ability.

An illustrator produces drawings.

A fashion reporter writes articles about fashion trends.

A textile chemist must have laboratory skills.

Laboratory technicians conduct tests to improve fibers and fabrics.

Fashion directors promote the fashion personality of a company.

Engineers in the textile industry must be able to solve problems efficiently.

Buyers should be able to select apparel.

Fashion models should be able to wear clothing.

Successful fashion writers possess excellent communication skills.

Personal shoppers should possess leadership skills.